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The school, later called the Garden, accepted women and slaves. Fragments from his most important work, Peri physeos (On Nature), were recovered from the charred papyri of Herculaneum, buried by an eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79.This, coupled with Epicurus' teachings concerning pleasure, led to public criticism of the school as a scene of debauchery. Johann Gutenberg - a craftsman from Mainz, Germany.The Reformation, the Renaissance, and the scientific period of the 17th century can hardly be contemplated without printed books.Nicholas Copernicus - Polish astronomer; regarded the founder of modern astronomy. He studied mathematics and optics at Cracow, then canon law at Bologna, before becoming canon of Frombork.
In his treatise, 'On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres' he postulated that the planets, including the earth, revolve around the sun, and that the earth revolved around its axis once every day.
William Gilbert - Some say (1544-1603) - English physician; known for his early studies on electricity and magnetism.
His De magnete (1600) propounded the theory that the earth was a giant lodestone with north and south magnetic poles.
Preoccupied with change, he declared that fire is the central element of the universe, and he postulated a world with no beginning and no end...
Pythagoras - Greek philosopher and mathematician; held that numbers were basic to matter; the Pythagorean Theorem is named for his geometric formulation; developed atomic theory; students of his philosophy emphasized geometrical form as a basic property of atoms; developed mathematical relationships which led to musical harmony.